Atmospheric Composition

Variations in constituents such as ozone and aerosols affect air quality, weather, and climate. Atmospheric composition is central to Earth system dynamics because the atmosphere integrates spatially varying surface emissions globally on time scales from weeks to years. NASA works to provide monitoring and evaluation tools to assess the effects of climate change on ozone recovery and future atmospheric composition, improved climate forecasts based on the understanding of the forcings of global environmental change, and air quality modeling that take into account the relationship between regional air quality and global climate change. Achievements in these areas via advances in observations, data assimilation, and modeling enable improved predictive capabilities for describing how future changes in atmospheric composition affect air quality, weather, and climate. NASA draws on global observations from space, augmented by suborbital and ground-based measurements to address these issues.

Research Questions

Atmospheric Composition addresses the following overarching questions:

  • How is atmospheric composition changing?
  • What trends in atmospheric composition and solar radiation influence global climate?
  • How does atmospheric composition respond to and affect global environmental change?
  • What are the effects of global atmospheric composition and climate changes on regional air quality?
  • How will future changes in atmospheric composition affect ozone, climate, and global air quality?

 

Research Programs

Upper Atmosphere Research Program (UARP)

The Upper Atmosphere Research Program (UARP) concentrates on observations to study processes that control ozone concentrations in the upper troposphere and stratosphere, and therefore surface ultraviolet radiation. The program funds laboratory studies, ground-based network observations, and field campaigns that contribute to quantifying scientific understanding of ozone changes. These activities complement the observations from and data analysis using the NASA EOS Aura satellite as well as other satellites that observe the upper troposphere and stratosphere. Typical laboratory studies include kinetics studies of key reactions that either directly or indirectly destroy and create ozone or the precursors to ozone destroying compounds, as well as spectroscopic studies required to accurately monitor the key atmospheric constituents. Typical field studies include airborne in situ and remote sensing instrumentation for focused aircraft field campaigns, high altitude balloon remote sensing and in situ observations, and long-term ground-based in situ and remote sensing programs [such as Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) and Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC)]. The WMO/UNEP quadrennial assessments on ozone depletion, as mandated by the Montreal Protocol, rely heavily on many of these observations, and investigators in this and other NASA atmospheric composition programs contribute heavily to these assessments.

Tropospheric Composition Program (TCP)

The Tropospheric Composition Program (TCP) seeks to improve the utility of satellite measurements in understanding of global tropospheric ozone and aerosols, including their precursors and transformation processes in the atmosphere. Ozone and aerosols are fundamental to both air quality and climate. The program emphasizes suborbital and ground-based measurements acquired during focused field deployments. Along with the other Atmospheric Composition programs, TCP also sponsors interpretation of these comprehensive but infrequent measurements to improve the continuous monitoring of tropospheric ozone and aerosols from space and the improvement of prognostic models. TCP also supports limited laboratory studies that are directly relevant to improved understanding of tropospheric chemistry.

Radiation Sciences Program (RSP)

The Radiation Sciences Program (RSP) strives to develop a quantitative and predictive understanding of how aerosols, clouds, and radiatively active gases scatter and absorb radiation (including both solar and terrestrially originated radiation) in the Earth’s atmosphere, especially as it relates to climate variability and change. The program supports studies to improve the theoretical understanding of radiative transfer as well as field measurements of aerosol and cloud particle concentration, composition, microphysics, and optical properties. These measurements include both airborne and surface-based remote and in situ measurements. The program also supports the analysis of satellite remote sensing and field data as well as the development of process models, which contribute to an Earth system modeling capability.

Atmospheric Composition Modeling and Analysis Program (ACMAP)

The Atmospheric Composition Modeling and Analysis Program (ACMAP) supports studies of air quality and oxidation efficiency in the troposphere, how pollution-sourced aerosols affect cloud properties, stratospheric chemistry and ozone depletion, and interactions between atmospheric chemistry and climate. Studies of long-term trends in atmospheric composition are also of interest, where the connection between cause and effect is elucidated using models. The program is particularly interested in studies that integrate observations from multiple instruments with models to address attribution and predictions. Use of satellite and suborbital data sets and ground-based measurements are encouraged for modeling constraints and verification where applicable.

 

Associated Earth Science Division Missions, Instruments, and Data Sets

The table below lists all Earth missions that are relevant to the Atmospheric Composition Focus Area in all phases. Learn more about the mission phases: operating, under development, under study, and past.

PHASE NAME                                                        
OPERATING
Satellite Missions Aqua
Aura
CALIPSO
CERES FM5 (on Suomi NPP)
CloudSat
Suomi NPP
Terra
CATS (on ISS)
GPM
OCO-2
SAGE-III ISS
OMPS (on Suomi NPP)
Suborbital Investigations:
Ground-based Observations
AGAGE
NDACC
AERONET
MPLNet
SHADOZ
PANDORA
TOLNet

Suborbital Investigations:
Aircraft Missions

AToM
ACT-America
ORACLES
AJAX
NAAMES
DEVELOPMENT
Satellite Missions OCO-3
TEMPO
PACE
MAIA
CLARREO Pathfinder
CERES FM6 (on JPSS-1)
RBI (on JPSS-2)
Suborbital Investigations: Aircraft Missions CAMP2Ex
FIRECHEM
UNDER STUDY
Satellite Missions ACE
ASCENDS
GEO-CAPE
PAST
Satellite Missions ATLAS
ERBS
VARS
SAGE III Meteop-3M
OCO
UARS
ATMOS
SAGE II
SAGE I
Suborbital Investigations: Aircraft Missions SEAC4RS
DISCOVER-AQ
ATTREX
TC4
MACPEX
CARVE
KORUS-AQ
POSIDON
HS3
ARISE
SABOR
ATTREX
COMEX
GloPac
NOVICE
ARCTAS
NAMMA
CC-VEX
INTEX-B
CR-AVE
AVE-Houston2
PAVE
AVE-Houston
INTEX-NA
SOLVE II
CRYSTAL-FACE
SOLVE
SAFARI 2000
SONEX
POLARIS
SUCCESS
TOTE-VOTE DIAL
STRAT
ASHOE/MAESA
SPADE
AASE
AAOE
STEP

 

ROSES Solicitations

For solicited program elements relevant to Atmospheric Composition, search for and view open, closed, and future Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences (ROSES) NASA Research Announcements (NRAs) on the NASA Solicitation and Proposal Integrated Review and Evaluation System (NSPIRES) website.

Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs)

 

Relevant Sites

Topics relevant to Atmospheric Composition are also being pursued through the following:

NASA Applied Sciences Programs
NASA Center Organizations
Interagency/International Activities

 

Program Managers

Hal Maring, Radiation Sciences Program

Ken Jucks, Upper Atmosphere Research Program

Barry Lefer, Tropospheric Composition Program

Richard Eckman, Atmospheric Composition Modeling and Analysis Program

Felix Seidel, Atmospheric Composition Programs