Prior to Senate confirmation for her role in ARPA-E, Dr. Williams had been the Chief Scientist at BP (2010-2014), and a Distinguished University Professor in the Institute of Physical Science and Technology and the Department of Physics at the University of Maryland. At Maryland she established an internationally recognized research program in experimental surface science, exploring fundamental issues in statistical mechanics and nanotechnology. She founded and then led the University’s interdisciplinary Materials Research Science and Engineering Center from 1996 through 2009. Since returning to campus in 2017, she has worked with colleagues in the College of Engineering and the School of Public Policy to advance technical innovation in the development use of clean energy. At ESSIC, she is responsible for a collaborative program of research on the analysis and integration of data from earth-observing satellites, with application of the results to forecast changes in the global environment and associated regional implications.