Mar 12, 1999

Sled dogs carry Astrobiologyto dizzying heights

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Mush! Sled dogs carry astrobiology to dizzying heights


"Life on the Edge" advances to a mountain summit at 13,000 ft


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Mar. 12, 1999: Last month a 50 lb canister of yeast and other microbes arrived at a 13,000 ft summit in California's White Mountains. It was the first step in a new educational program called "Life on the Edge," which aims to expose grade school students to some of the basic principles of astrobiology and to explore the possibilities for life elsewhere in the Solar System.

Right: Tovic (left) and Ruby (right) enjoy frigid conditions in the White Mountains on a run in early February. These two Huskies are members of an eight dog team that has travelled into the White Mountains several times this year to convey and monitor "Life on the Edge" microbe vessels. The sled, pictured in the background, is pulled by Ruby, Tovic and six other dogs. The driver (Tony Phillips, not pictured) rides standing on the runners at the rear of the sled. Microbes and other supplies like food and water travel in the red bag, which is tied inside the sled's "basket."

"The basic idea" says Dr. David Noever, a member of NASA/Marshall's astrobiology research group, "is to subject a collection of benign microorganisms to some of Earth's harshest environments, including geothermal vents, high mountain peaks, and even the South Pole. After the microbes have been exposed to these severe conditions for a period of time, we will recover them and distribute them to classrooms. Grade school students can perform simple laboratory protocols on their samples to see how their microbes fared, and they'll be able to compare harsh environments on Earth to places like Europa, the Moon, and Mars."


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The first phase of Life on the Edge is being conducted as a joint effort between NASA/Marshall's Space Science Laboratory and the University of California's White Mountain Research Station (WMRS). The WMRS maintains four research facilities for high-altitude research in the White Mountains of eastern California. The highest facility sits atop the White Mountain summit, a wind-swept peak at 14,249 ft. Conditions there are severe. Near the summit air pressure is only 600 millibars and the sustained temperature during winter is a frigid -20 C. Annual precipitation is less than 12 inches, most of which arrives as snow in winter. The temperature, pressure, and low humidity are similar to conditions at Earth's south pole during the austral summer.

"Most of what we do is research in physiology, wildlife biology, and geology," says Dave Trydahl, the WMRS station manager. "This astrobiology activity is a new area for us and we're eager to support it."

The WMRS staff have opened their facilities as shelters for the dog sled team, broken some difficult trails with snowmachines, and helped convey the yeast vessel to its present location.

Left: The White Mountain Observatory. The Life on the Edge microbe vessal is strapped to the side of this building at 13,000 ft elevation. This high and dry site was once a leading candidate for the Keck telescope, now located on Mauna Kea in Hawaii. The dome sits empty now, but the NASA/Marshall Science Communications Group in cooperation with the White Mountain Research Station is planning to eventually re-open the observatory as a remotely operated telescope for our readers.

"We haven't yet made it to the top (at 14,249 ft.) despite 4 trips with the dog sled team and 2 trips in snowmobiles," says Dr. Tony Phillips, a NASA astronomer and musher. "We've been delayed by severe storms, white outs, minor injuries to me and to the dogs -- you name it. It's an extreme environment up there. That's why it's so difficult."

"But," he continued, "we have conveyed the microbes to a summit at 13,000 ft, not far from the 14,249 ft. peak, and they are exposed to the the environment there. We're planning additional trips in the near future to move them to the top."


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Some of the yeast packets will be recovered in May for distribution to classrooms. Others will remain at the top through the winter of 1999-2000 for prolonged exposure to severe conditions.

What's it like dog-sledding in the White Mountains?

Tony Phillips contributed this account based on his most recent trip:


Blondie's Revenge
"My dog ate the microbes!"

Feb. 25, 1999: "My team of eight Siberian Huskies and I began a 50 mile sled run to the summit of the White Mountains on a perfect day for sledding. It was cold, the trail was well-packed, and we began our steep ascent averaging about 6 mph. We had previously advanced the yeast packets to 13,000 ft, only 1000 ft below the summit, and this time we hoped to reach the top."

We're looking
for a few good experiments!
We're looking for a few good volunteers

Next month we'll be inviting educators, students, and other scientists to join us as participants in Life on the Edge. If you have an interest in learning about life in extreme environments, you'll be able to sign up to receive a sample packet of microbes returned from the White Mountain summit. What's it cost? Nothing! We'll simply ask that you try out some of our classroom-safe lab protocols and give us your feedback. If you're interested please sign up for our Partners in Discovery program.
The Life on the Edge project is conducted with support from the NASA Marshall Education Programs Office.
"About 13 miles into our trip one of my sled dogs -- a giant, enthusiastic puller named Blondie -- twisted his leg. The usual procedure when a dog is hurt is to bundle him into a bag which sits in the basket of the sled. The rest of the team then pulls the musher and the injured dog to safety."

"With this in mind I unsnapped Blondie from the gang line, and lifted him into the sled bag. Or tried to. The rescue quickly turned into an epic wrestling match. Although I am twice as heavy as Blondie, and arguably smarter, it was no contest. After a brief struggle, the sled was over-turned, my face was covered in snow, and Blondie stood panting happily back in position with the rest of the team. Blondie wanted to pull, not ride. After a few repetitions of this procedure, Blondie won out. I returned him to the team, and we headed for home."

It was not a very productive trip, except for Blondie who proved that he can pull just as hard on 3 legs as he can with 4."

Feb. 28, 1999: "Two days later we made another assault on the White Mountains. Blondie, who was still limping slightly, stayed home and was replaced in the team by Peanut, a small female Husky. Blondie was clearly affronted by being left behind, but we couldn't risk aggravating his injury. In retrospect I wish I had taken him. I might have avoided the revenge he exacted days later."

"This run began much like the last. A hard-packed trail. A cool breeze. Good conditions for sledding."

"At first we made record time. The dogs ascended 2500 feet in only 2.5 hrs. It looked as if we would reach the summit in a single day with energy to spare."

"Since our last run the wind had blown enormous snowdrifts along the trail. At one point, where the underlying path was carved from the side of a mountain, the trail disappeared entirely under a drift of rock hard snow that spilled steeply downward into a 150 ft ravine. The trick was to make it across without slipping sideways down the side of the mountain."
"From a distance it looked sled-able. No problem, I thought, if we go fast enough."

Left: The dog sled team dashes across a steep slippery snowdrift.

"We went fast, all right, straight down to the bottom of the crevass."

"Regaining the trail was not easy. The snow was so hard that I couldn't punch my fingers through the surface for a handhold. (They are still swollen from trying.) The only way up was by crawling crablike on my stomach, pulling the dogs and sled behind me. The dogs helped as much as they could, but on the slippery slope they couldn't stand up for long. One, two, then three legs would slip, followed by a funny little "ufff" sound and a downward tug on the sled. Our ascent back to the trail lasted more an hour."

"Once up, I nearly fainted. Then I nearly barfed. It would've been a good workout at sea-level, but at 11,500 ft it felt about midway between devastating and catastrophic."

"We eventually discovered a detour and continued sledding, but the damage was done. We were three hours behind schedule and the exertion of our adventure in the crevass had given me a serious case of altitude sickness. By 4:30 p.m., ill and exhausted, I decided to stop for the night at Barcroft Station (elev. 12,500 ft)."

"Altitude sickness is no fun, and I won't belabor the details. Throughout the night I melted snow for cup after cup of herbal tea (my wife's special remedy) and, miraculously, I was fit to sled again by morning."

"On the morning of March 1, I hooked up the dogs and we left Barcroft Station for a stopping point at 13,000 ft where the yeast has been exposed to the harsh mountain environment for over 5 weeks."
Right: The dogs take a breather at the White Mountain Research Station's Barcroft Facility at 12,500 ft. The NASA trailer in the background is part of a NASA/JPL atmospheric research project.

"Rather than convey the yeast from there to the summit, which I felt was beyond my limits at that moment, I decided to photograph the area and to collect snow and soil samples for later microbial analysis. At present no one knows which, if any, indiginous microorganisms live in the wind-swept peaks of the White Mountain range. We hope to find some that might later be identified as local extremophiles."

"I spent over an hour collecting samples, including rocks, snow and soil. I packed them carefully into the sled bag, turned the team around and finally headed home."

"Descending from 13,000 ft to 8,500 ft was easier than the climb the day before, and we reached my truck before nightfall. It had been a difficult two-day journey, but I felt that the many microbe samples tucked away in my sled bag made the trip worthwhile. I drove home, tired but satisfied."

March 2, 1999 -- Blondie's Revenge: "A day after we returned I was preparing to ship our hard-won samples to the Marshall Space Flight Center where astrobiologists would examine them for evidence of microbial life. Blondie, still recuperating from his injury, was asleep in my office when I placed the sample bag on my desk and left briefly for a cup of tea."

"When I returned only Blondie remained. The sample pouch was on the floor in shreds. Fragments of plastic vials and swirl bags littered the floor. Blondie stretched and let out a long, satisfied belch."

My dog ate the microbes!

"Blondie is recovering nicely so we know that any White Mountain extremophiles are not pathogenic to Huskies. In fact, Huskies may be the toughest extremophiles we encounter during the Life on the Edge experiment."

"We're going back again in two weeks for more samples. This time I plan to take Blondie with me."


Life on the Edge FAQ


What is Life on the Edge? Why study life in extreme environments? How do I become involved?

The answers to these and many other questions about Life on the Edge may be found on our Frequently Asked Questions web page.


Life on the Edge is a collaborative educational project being developed between NASA/Marshall Space Science Laboratory, the University of California White Mountain Research Station (WMRS) and the Center for Astrophysical Research in Antarctica (CARA). Participants include David Noever, Richard Hoover, Tony Phillips, John Horack, and Dale Watring of NASA; Dave Trydahl, Joe Szewczak, and Susan Szewczak of the WMRS. Web Links

The White Mountain Research Station - from the University of California

The Center for Astrophysical research in Antarctica -- from the University of Chicago and Comets web site

The Star Trails Society - join NASA as a partner in Discovery - The South Pole Adventure Web Page

NASA/Ames Astrobiology Web Site -- something for everyone interested in astrobiology

NASA's Office of Space Science - press releases and other news related to NASA and astrophysics

Related Stories:

13 Jan. 1999: Life on the Edge -- an educational initiative to teach students about life in extreme environments

3 Dec. 1998: The frosty plains of Europa -- new evidence for water on Jupiter's moon.

22 Oct. 1998: Callisto makes a big splash -- Scientists may have discovered a salty ocean and some ingredients for life on Jupiter's moon

16 Sep. 1998: Great Bugs of Fire -- NASA sends volcano-loving microbes into orbit for materials science research.

1 Sep. 1998: Earth microbes on the Moon -- Three decades after Apollo 12, a remarkable colony of lunar survivors revisited.

12 Mar. 1998:
Exotic-looking microbes turn up in ancient Antarctic ice -- microbes in the ice above Lake Vostok


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For more information, please contact:
Dr. John M. Horack , Director of Science Communications
Author: Dr. Tony Phillips
Curator: Linda Porter
NASA Official: Ron Koczor