Tick-Tock Atomic Clock
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"I must go down to the seas again, to the lonely sea and the sky
And all I ask is a tall ship and a star to steer her by;" from Sea Fever by John Masefield, 1900.
At the time Masefield wrote his poem, at the beginning of the 20th century, navigating by the stars had been made much more accurate by the invention of maritime chronometers. They were spring-driven clocks that, once set, kept the time within a fraction of a second each day.
In the 21st century, our ships travel much greater distances -- not only from London to New York, but from Earth to Mars and beyond. As a result, the accuracy of our time pieces must be greater as well.
Above: A schooner sailing under clear skies. Copyright Joel W. Rogers.
That's impressive, but scientists working in NASA's Fundamental Physics Program would like to do better. For those of us who mutter "just a minute" when we mean "half-an-hour," improved precision might seem overboard. Yet there are many uses for it: to test theories of gravity, for example, to guide spaceships, and to solve a surprising variety of down-to-Earth problems.
Sailers, truck drivers, soldiers, hikers, and pilots ... they all rely on atomic clocks, even if they don't know it. Anyone who uses the Global Positioning System (GPS) benefits from atomic time. Each of the 24 GPS satellites carries 4 atomic clocks on board. By triangulating time signals broadcast from orbit, GPS receivers on the ground can pinpoint their own location.
Tiny instabilities in those orbiting clocks contribute at least a few meters of error to single-receiver GPS measurements. Making the clocks smaller (so that more of them can fit on each satellite) and increasing their stability could reduce such errors to fractions of a meter.
Left: A new generation of growers called "precision farmers" rely on GPS and atomic clocks. [more]
"One day, we'll want to have GPS satellites around other planets, too," notes Don Strayer of NASA's Fundamental Physics Program at JPL. For example, a Martian Global Positioning System could guide explorers -- both robot and human -- across the Red Planet. Less likely but possible: Future farmers on Mars might want GPS to help them tend crops as their cousins on Earth do. Martian fields will definitely need special care.
Atomic clocks on board GPS satellites are stable "within 1 part in 1012," says Lute Maleki who supervises JPL's Quantum Sciences and Technology Group. That means an observer would have to watch a GPS clock for 1012 seconds (32,000 years) to see it gain or lose a single second. "To guide spacecraft from planet to planet we use clocks that are even better -- good to 1 part in 1014," he added.
Recently scientists have built atomic clocks that are better still -- "stable to about one part in 1015," notes Maleki. They did it using a new technique called "laser cooling." In the 1990's several groups of researchers made a counter-intuitive discovery: Shining lasers on atoms can cool them to temperatures only a millionth of a degree above absolute zero. Such cold atoms make excellent "pendulums" for atomic clocks, explains Strayer, "because lower temperatures allow the natural frequency of the atom to be measured more accurately."
If cold atoms are good, then floating cold atoms are even better.
"The International Space Station is a great place for atomic clocks because the station is freely falling around the Earth," Strayer continued. Slow-moving atoms in a cooled weightless clock can be observed for a longer time, and they're less likely to hit the walls of their container in mid-oscillation.
If all goes as planned, a laser-cooled clock named PARCS will be installed on the ISS in late 2004 or 2005. Experts expect it to be the most stable clock ever, keeping time within 1 second every 300 million years (1 part in 1016).
According to Einstein's theory of gravity and space-time -- called "general relativity" -- clocks in strong gravity tick slower than clocks in weak gravity. Because gravity is weaker on the ISS than at Earth's surface, PARCS should accumulate an extra second every 10,000 years compared to clocks ticking on the planet below. PARCS won't be there that long, but the clock is so stable that it will reveal this effect in less than one year. (Strayer notes that clocks on GPS satellites experience this relativistic phenomenon, too, and that onboard systems must correct for it.)
"Putting atomic clocks in orbit is a good way to test general relativity," says Maleki. "General relativity has passed every test so far, but no theory is perfect -- not even Einstein's. Eventually, as we extend the precision of our experiments, we expect to find flaws in it, and that will dramatically change what we know about the nature of the Universe."
The stretching of time by relativity has been felt and measured by other orbiting clocks -- GPS, for example -- but PARCS will measure the effect with errors one hundred times smaller than its predecessors did. Furthermore, PARCS will test technologies to be used in a next-generation clock named RACE slated for installation on the ISS in 2006. Stable within 1 part in 1017, RACE will keep time so well that if it ran for three billion years it would lose less than 1 second.
Clocks like RACE will test physics like never before. They will improve telecommunications on Earth -- "in ways we can't imagine yet" says Maleki -- and do wondrous things for navigation. Indeed, with RACE on board, a mariner could navigate not only by the stars, but between them as well.
Perhaps if Masefield were alive today, he would craft his poem differently: "I must RACE down to the launch pad, to my craft so sleek and true; All I need is a stable clock and a star to steer her to...."
Sea Fever -- the entire poem by John Masefield (1878-1967), English Poet Laureate, 1930-1967.
PARCS, the Primary Atomic Reference Clock in Space -- The purpose of the PARCS project is to place an advanced cesium atomic clock on the International Space Station (ISS) and utilize it to test predictions of Einstein's Theory of Relativity.
RACE, the Rubidium Atomic Clock Experiment -- Using technology developed and tested by the PARCS project, RACE will advance the state of clock science into a new frontier. Like PARCS it will fly onboard the ISS.
How does GPS Work? (National Air and Space Museum); The Role of Atomic Clocks (Beyond Discovery); Facts and Figures (Canada's Geodetic Survey Division); Global Positioning System Overview (University of Colorado); GPS Primer (aero.org)
Right: 24 GPS satellites orbit Earth. [more]
Tractors, Satellites, and Pickup Trucks -- (Science@NASA) Precision farming is a down-to-Earth application of atomic clocks.
What is an atomic second? In an atomic clock, the steady "tick" of an electronic oscillator is kept steady by comparing it to the natural frequency of an atom -- usually cesium-133. When a cesium atom drops from one particular energy level to another, a microwave photon emerges. The wave-like photon oscillates like a pendulum in an old-style clock. When it has oscillated precisely 9,192,631,770 times -- by decree of the Thirteenth General Conference on Weights and Measures in 1967 -- we know that one "atomic second" has elapsed.
Steven Chu (Stanford), Claude Cohen-Tannoudji (College de France), and Bill Phillips (NIST) shared the 1997 Nobel Prize in Physics for their work on laser cooling -- a key technology for modern atomic clocks. See also "Laser Cooling Puts the Freeze on Fast-Moving Atoms"
The Longitude Problem and the invention of the maritime chronometer -- a must-read for students of time. See also: A Walk Through Time from the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST)
Frequently Asked Questions about time, from NIST.
Timing is Everything (NASA Microgravity News)
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