The First Starlight
There are many questions about that early time: Which came first, stars or galaxies? Did stars appear one at a time, or in massive flurries of simultaneous creation? Scientists have theories, but how wonderful it would be to actually look back in time and see for certain.
Above: This fanciful image by artist Adolph Schaller depicts the riotous formation of the very first stars in the Universe. [more]
Astronomer Richard Ellis of the California Institute of Technology recently used NASA's Hubble Space Telescope to travel backwards nearly to the time of the Big Bang itself. He and his colleagues went in search of newborn stars -- the first ones to appear in our Universe.
Ellis explains: "At some point a billion or so years after the Big Bang, gravitational attraction caused the gas that filled the Universe to collapse and form the first stars. Searching for signs of those stars, which we call First Light, is one of the most interesting challenges in modern astronomy."
The search is daunting because such stars lie more than 10 billion light-years from Earth. They're very faint. Even powerful instruments like Hubble have trouble detecting them.
Left: Ellis et al looked through this massive cluster of galaxies, named Abell 2218, to see stars from the distant past. Image credit: the Hubble Space Telescope. [more]
Peering through the unusual lens, they observed a faint cloud of stars lying 13.4 billion light-years from Earth. The cloud, like a very small galaxy, contained about a million stars. For comparison, typical galaxies in the Universe today contain hundreds of billions of stars. Ellis and his colleagues believe the diminutive cloud is a building block of the full-sized galaxies that now populate our Universe.
If the Universe is 14 billion years old, as some models hold, then the star cloud existed less than one billion years after the Big Bang -- just when theorists think the first stars probably formed. Indeed, the stars in the cloud appear to be very young. Spectral evidence suggests that they are roughly 2 to 5 million years old, though Ellis cautions that this evidence is still being debated among researchers. The Sun, for comparison is about 4.8 billion years old.
"We're seeing this cluster while it's switching on," Ellis says. The stars in the cloud were among the first, perhaps, to light up the heavens.
Without a boost from the gravitational lens, which brightened the star cloud's light by approximately 30 times, neither the Keck 10-meter telescope nor the Hubble Space Telescope would have detected these distant, young stars, notes Ellis.
Such magnifying lenses are one of the odd realities of Einstein's theory of general relativity: Einstein showed that mass creates a local curvature in the geometry of space-time that can bend the path of light. The strong curvature caused by the massive group of galaxies Ellis used for this research was able to bend and focus light rays from the star cloud far behind it, just like the lens in a magnifying glass.
"By looking at particular regions of the sky where the light from the very early Universe is highly magnified by a gravitational lens, we get a helpful boost from nature in searching for these feeble signals," Ellis adds.
More than 500 such gravitational lenses have been identified. But to be useful in the search for First Light, a lens must be thoroughly studied so that scientists know precisely how it bends light, in the same way that knowing the shape of a funhouse mirror can tell you how it reflects light. Currently there are about 10 such well-studied lenses.
Below: In this example of a gravitational lens, light from a distant galaxy forms a halo around the massive lensing object. Image courtesy European Space Agency. [more]
"Everybody wants to know, Was this a fluke?," remarks Ellis. "If these are really the first stars in the Universe, then there should be a huge number of them in the sky."
NASA's Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST), scheduled for launch in 2009, will reveal the answer. "The NGST will be able to detect these objects without any help from gravitational lenses," Ellis says. "There'll be no question -- we'll be able to count them and figure out how old they are."
Meanwhile, astronomers will continue peering through gravitational lenses, hoping to catch a glimpse of what emerged after the Big Bang. It's worth a look. After all, strange galaxies and riotous stars could be just the beginning ... of what lies in the past.
Editor's note: The opening passages of this story ask Which came first, stars or galaxies? Some readers may wonder how galaxies, which are made of stars, could possibly precede the stars themselves. It sounds like a paradox, but it's not. The first galaxies might have formed as great whirlpools of gas from which stars condensed. Or perhaps the stars formed first, and later gathered together as galaxies. It's an important question for astronomers who study the evolution of our Universe.Web Links
Gravitational Lensing -- the basics, plus an interactive model of a gravitational lens
Hubble Space Telescope -- home page
Right: The Keck Telescope in Mauna Kea, Hawaii, was used to capture the spectrum of the distant star cluster.
More telescopes: Next Generation Space Telescope; Microwave Anisotropy Probe; Cosmic Background Explorer;
International team uses powerful cosmic lens to find galactic building block in early Universe -- a Caltech press release
Searching for First Light in the Early Universe -- by Caltech's Richard Ellis
Stellar Fireworks -- the first stars may have formed in a flurry of "fireworks" -- from STScI
Through the Looking Glass -- Science@NASA article: NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has uncovered exotic rings, arcs and crosses that are optical mirages produced by gigantic gravitational lenses in deep space
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