Gravity in the Brain
Or is it? In fact, playing catch is more complicated than it appears.
Just before the ball arrives, your hand twists slightly. The muscles tense, so your hand isn't knocked away by the force of the blow. The timing is surprisingly exact: the muscles tighten exactly one-tenth of a second before the ball's impact.
Above: Playing catch. Image credit and copyright: Jim Richardson.
How does your brain do it?
According to neuroscientist Joe McIntyre of the College de France, the brain is so accurate because it contains an internal model of gravity. The brain, he says, seems able to anticipate, calculate and compensate for gravitational acceleration -- naturally.
His conclusions, published recently in the journal Nature Neuroscience, are based on an innovative ball-catching experiment conducted in space: Astronauts on board space shuttle Columbia caught balls released from a spring-loaded canon. The balls moved with a constant speed as opposed to a constant acceleration as they would on Earth. While the astronauts were playing catch in this manner, infrared cameras tracked the motions of their hands and arms, and electrodes measured the electrical activity of their arm muscles.
Below: An astronaut prepares for the ball-catching experiment inside the Neurolab trainer. [more]
In flight, says McIntyre, the astronauts were always able to catch the ball, but their timing was a little bit "off." They reacted as if they expected the ball to move faster than it did -- in other words, as if gravity was "Earth-normal."
The astronauts' expectation of gravity was surprisingly persistent. They continued to mis-anticipate the ball's motion nearly fifteen days into the experiment -- "although we did begin to see some evidence of adaptation at that point, " says McIntyre.
"The question is," he said, "if you do anticipate gravity, then why?"
Astronauts orbiting Earth clearly sense a change in acceleration: for example, the astronauts themselves float. And they do adapt to weightlessness in many ways. Motion sickness, for example, tends to disappear after two or three days in space. Yet for nearly fifteen days, astronaut brains continued to predict that balls would be accelerated as on Earth, even in the face of contrary evidence.
Such rigid, inflexible behavior supports the notion that the brain contains a built-in model of gravity -- like a specialized computer in our heads that calculates acceleration.
There's other evidence, too. For instance, says McIntyre, if you place an infant safely on a glass table where he or she can see the floor below, the baby will become fearful. He's not falling, yet he expects to fall -- without any prior experience of falling. "It doesn't take much to elicit this response," he added. "It seems like a very robust, common effect that we expect a downward acceleration."
Eventually the amount of acceleration we anticipate can be changed from Earth-normal to other values. To wit: By the 15th day of the Neurolab mission astronauts on the shuttle were beginning to catch the ball better. The too-early movement of the arm remained, but its amplitude grew smaller. At the same time, the astronauts began to add in an additional arm movement -- one timed to occur just before the ball's impact.
When the astronauts repeated the experiments on the ground, they all, said McIntyre, seemed surprised at how fast the ball dropped. But they adjusted far more quickly than they had in space. On Earth, if you're late with your response, you miss the ball. Perhaps that forces you to learn more quickly, he suggests.
Left: The human brain and nervous system remain a puzzle in many important respects. Consult the Neurolab Brochure to learn about the missing pieces and how some of them might be found in space.
McIntyre's Neurolab experiment was surely fun, but there's more at stake than fun and games.
Researchers hope that understanding how astronauts adjust to the unexpected movements of objects in space will improve mission safety. There are also benefits to those of us on Earth: Such experiments, says McIntyre, offer a unique way to explore the nervous system. Some kinds of brain damage cause trouble with timing much like the astronauts experienced. Unraveling how the nervous system works is an important step in treating these kinds of problems.
Indeed, the human nervous system remains a puzzle in many respects. Experiments like this one show that at least some of the pieces may be found ... in space.
To learn more about this research, read the original work in Nature Neuroscience, 4, 693, 2001.
NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research supports studies of the human body in space.
Neurolab -- home page
The Brain in Space -- a teacher's guide from NASA Spacelink (this is a 3.5 MB Adobe PDF file)
Frames of Reference and Internal Models -- in other words, "the ball-catching experiment."
Simple Movements, Complex Adaptations -- more information about the ball-catching experiment from the Neurolab Brochure.
Pictures: Inside the Neurolab trainer; Astronaut Kathryn Hire plays catch; Astronaut Jim Pawelczyk plays catch (spaceflight.nasa.gov)
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