4 min read

Neptune at Opposition

September is Best Time to Glimpse Elusive Ice Giant

Neptune Full Disk View
This picture of Neptune was taken by Voyager 2 less than five days before the spacecraft’s closest approach of the planet on Aug. 25, 1989. The picture shows the "Great Dark Spot" – a storm in Neptune's atmosphere – and the bright, light-blue smudge of clouds that accompanies the storm.
Credit: NASA/JPL

Opposition comes every September, and it’s not just kids who resist going back to school after summer vacation. September is also when the planet Neptune will be at opposition – an annual event when Earth passes directly between Neptune and the Sun. 

At opposition, Earth is closest to our most distant planetary neighbor, and Neptune and the Sun are at opposite sides of us. For astronomers and sky watchers, it’s a great opportunity to observe this planet that’s invisible to the naked eye.

An ice giant, a planet of monster storms, and a recluse rarely seen, Neptune at opposition reaches its highest point in the sky around midnight. This makes evenings in September the best time to grab your telescope or high-powered binoculars, and use a sky chart or sky-watching software to view this planet that is 30 times farther from the Sun than Earth. When you find this elusive planet that appears as a mere dot in most amateur telescopes, remember that you’re actually viewing a world with a thick atmosphere composed of massive amounts of hydrogen and helium with traces of other gases. That atmosphere surrounds a solid interior of rock and a warm mantle of dense fluid, deep beneath the clouds. 

Neptune’s opposition occurs every 367 days, on average. After one event, Neptune is in nearly the same spot when Earth circles around again a year later. That’s because Neptune’s orbit takes so long, lasting about 165 Earth years; in fact, Neptune has made only one orbit around the Sun since it was discovered in 1846. 

Neptune’s opposition will remain an autumn phenomenon through the 2050s, as the planet creeps along its orbit and across our calendar. In 2066 it will occur on Christmas Eve.

This video illustrates the opposition of Neptune in September 2019, which occurred shortly after the 30th anniversary of Voyager 2’s flyby of the planet – still the only visit by a spacecraft to Neptune. Credit: NASA

The Sept. 9, 2019, opposition event came just after the 30th anniversary of the Voyager 2 flyby of the planet, in 1989. So far the only terrestrial visitor to Neptune, Voyager 2 provided our closest glimpse of the planet, passing about 3,000 miles (5,000 kilometers) above its north pole, while also spotting six undiscovered moons and confirming the existence of faint rings around Neptune. The pictures Voyager 2 sent back gave scientists a new snapshot of weather in the extreme, including a dark and violent vortex that looked similar to the Great Red Spot on Jupiter. Since then, observatories such as the Hubble Space Telescope and James Webb Space Telescope have given us additional views of the planet from afar. NASA scientists have learned, for instance, that unlike Jupiter, the Neptune vortex disappears for a time, and then similar storms appear later. Scientists have determined that Neptune has seasons such as those on Earth, but that these are much longer, spanning decades instead of months. By studying these seasons on a continual basis, scientists look to gain a better understanding of the similarities and differences of atmospheres on other planets, including right here on Earth. 

image of the Neptune system from the James Webb Space Telescope’s Near-Infrared Camera (NIRCam)
This image of the Neptune system from the James Webb Space Telescope’s Near-Infrared Camera (NIRCam), reveals stunning views of the planet’s rings, which had not been seen with this clarity in more than three decades. Webb’s image of Neptune also captures details of the planet’s turbulent, windy atmosphere. Neptune, an ice giant, has an interior that is much richer in elements heavier than hydrogen and helium, like methane, than the gas giants Jupiter and Saturn. To the upper left of the planet in this image, one of Neptune’s moons, Triton, also sports Webb’s distinctive eight diffraction spikes, an artifact of the telescope’s structure. Webb also captured six more of Neptune’s 14 known moons, along with a nearby star, and a smattering of distant galaxies.

Binoculars and telescopes can pick up Neptune other times during the year, but proximity, brightness, and position in the sky make opposition the peak opportunity. So consider taking a look at the ice giant Neptune in September, and you’ll see why it captures the imagination of so many scientists and astronomers. Grab your telescope, step outside, and enjoy the view. 
For more details on Neptune and the other planets in our solar system, visit science.nasa.gov.