A full-globe view of Jupiter against the darkness of space

Jupiter

Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun, and the largest in the solar system – more than twice as massive as the other planets combined.

10 Things About Jupiter

Artist's concept showing how Earth easily fits inside Jupiter's Great Red Spot

For scale, Jupiter's Great Red Spot is about the size of Earth.

Spacecraft between two nosecone rocket farings.

Jupiter's distance from the Sun is 5.2 times the Earth-Sun distance.

clouds in Jupiter's atmosphere

Jupiter's day lasts only 10 Earth hours; its year is 12 Earth years.

lighting flashes at jupiter's pole

As a gas giant, Jupiter has no solid surface. It may have an Earth-sized core.

Color-enhanced view of Jupiter

Jupiter's atmosphere is mostly hydrogen and helium.

illustration of spacecraft at europa with jupiter in background

As of July 2023, Jupiter had 95 moons.

Backlit ring of Jupiter

The rings were spotted in 1979.

Illustration of the tri-winged spacecraft over the planet Jupiter, which is tan and white striped

Seven robots flew past; two stayed in orbit.

artist's visualization of Jupiter's Magnetosphere

Jupiter can't support life as we know it.

Ammonia Ice near Jupiter Great Red Spot

The Great Red Spot is a storm that has raged for more than 100 years.

Facts About Jupiter

Jupiter is a world of extremes. It's the largest planet in our solar system. If Jupiter was a hollow shell, 1,000 Earths could fit inside.

Jupiter also is the oldest planet, forming from the dust and gases left over from the Sun's formation 4.5 billion years ago. But it has the shortest day in the solar system, taking only 10.5 hours to spin around once on its axis.

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A view of Jupiter's Great Red Spot and colorful cloud bands of tan, brown, white, and orange as seen from the Juno spacecraft.
NASA’s Juno spacecraft took three images of Jupiter’s Great Red Spot on Feb. 12, 2019, that were used to create this color-enhanced view.
Enhanced image by Kevin M. Gill (CC-BY) based on images provided courtesy of NASA/JPL-Caltech/SwRI/MSSS

Exploring Jupiter

The first detailed observations of Jupiter were made by Galileo Galilei in 1610 with a small, homemade telescope.

More recently, this planet has been studied by orbiters, probes, and spacecraft passing by on their way to other worlds. NASA’s Juno spacecraft currently is studying the giant planet from orbit. Europa Clipper will launch in October 2024 to study Jupiter's icy moon, Europa.

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A rocket shoots out bright yellowish flames as it lifts the Juno spacecraft into the blue skies over Cape Canaveral. Florida. Plumes of smoke swell beneath the rocket and spacecraft. Three towers surround the launch pad.
NASA's Juno spacecraft launches from Space Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida on Aug. 5, 2011.
NASA/Bill Ingalls

Moons of Jupiter

Jupiter has 95 moons that have been officially recognized by the International Astronomical Union.

But the number doesn't capture the complexity of the Jovian system of moons, rings and asteroids. The giant planet has thousands of small objects in its orbit.

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This is a composite of the Jovian system and includes the edge of Jupiter with its Great Red Spot and Jupiter’s four largest moons.
This "family portrait" composite of the Jovian system includes the edge of Jupiter with its Great Red Spot, and Jupiter's four largest moons, known as the Galilean satellites. From top to bottom, the moons shown are Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto.
NASA

Jupiter Resources

Explore a curated collection of Jupiter resources, including activities that can be done at home, as well as videos, animations, posters, and online interactives.

These resources are suitable for educators, students, and anyone interested in learning more about Jupiter!

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A crescent view of Jupiter with its bands of beige, and orange clouds. The Great Red Spot in the right, bottom corner.
NASA's Juno spacecraft saw this striking vista during a close flyby of Jupiter.
NASA
Eyes on the Solar System lets you explore the planets, their moons, asteroids, and comets.
NASA/JPL-Caltech

Europa Clipper

future Mission

Europa Clipper will search for signs of potential habitability on Jupiter's icy ocean moon Europa.

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The back of a green transport aircraft is open like a giant duck's bill, and the shipping container hold Europa Clipper can be seen sitting inside. A ramp extends from the back of the plane. Workers are giving hand signals as they guide the shipping container off the plane.
Technicians offload NASA’s largest planetary mission spacecraft, Europa Clipper, from a United States Air Force C-17 Globemaster III transport aircraft at the Launch and Landing Facility at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida on Thursday, May 23, 2024. Crews will prepare it for launch aboard a SpaceX Falcon Heavy rocket from Launch Complex 39A at the Florida spaceport, targeting liftoff on Tuesday, June 25. Europa Clipper will help determine if life-sustaining conditions exist below the surface of Jupiter’s fourth largest moon, Europa.
NASA/Isaac Watson
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