NASA Astrophysics

In the Science Mission Directorate (SMD), the Astrophysics Division studies the universe.

The universe is everything. It includes all of space, matter, energy, time, and you.

NASA’s Astrophysics Division is dedicated to exploring the universe, pushing the boundaries of what is known of the cosmos, and sharing its discoveries with the world. The Division continues expanding humanity’s understanding of how the universe began and evolved, how it works, and whether there are places beyond Earth where life might thrive. By working together with collaborators and academic partners from all over the world, NASA researchers are making progress towards addressing these tantalizing scientific goals with leading-edge technologies and groundbreaking science.

Decadal Survey on Astronomy and Astrophysics 2020 (Astro2020)

The National Academies have completed their work on the 2020 Decadal Survey on Astronomy and Astrophysics.

Please visit the National Academies Decadal Survey on Astronomy and Astrophysics 2020 web page for additional information about survey and their published documents on the topic.

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Astrophysics comprises of three focused and two cross-cutting programs. These focused programs provide an intellectual framework for advancing science and conducting strategic planning.

Featured Missions

A montage of the Webb Space Telescope over a composited background of stars and galaxies.

James Webb Space Telescope

Webb is celebrating one year of incredible discoveries, from exoplanets to the early Universe.

Hubble Space Telescope

Since its 1990 launch, the Hubble Space Telescope has changed our fundamental understanding of the universe.

Roman Space Telescope

Roman is designed to settle essential questions in the areas of dark energy, exoplanets, and infrared astrophysics.

Current Missions

The Astrophysics current missions include two of the Great Observatories originally planned in the 1980s and launched over the past 30 years. The current suite of operational missions include the Hubble Space Telescope, the Chandra X-ray Observatory, and the James Webb Space Telescope. Additionally, the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope explores the high-energy end of the spectrum. Innovative Explorer missions, such as the Neil Gehrels Swift Observatory, NuSTAR, TESS, and IXPE, as well as NICER, complement the Astrophysics strategic missions. SOFIA, an airborne observatory for infrared astronomy, is in its extended mission phase. All of the missions together account for much of humanity's accumulated knowledge of the heavens. Many of these missions have achieved their prime science goals, but continue to produce spectacular results in their extended operations.

NASA-funded investigators also participate in observations, data analysis and developed instruments for the astrophysics missions of our international partners, including ESA's XMM-Newton.

Blue spiral graphic against space background showing astrophysics mission icons.
Updated April 22, 2024

Near Future

The near future will be dominated by several missions. Currently in development, are ESA's Euclid mission which will fly NASA furnished detectors and JAXA's XRISM (X-Ray Imaging and Spectroscopy) mission which uses NASA furnished technologies that will help provide breakthroughs in the study of structure formation of the universe, outflows from galaxy nuclei, and dark matter.

Completing the missions in development, supporting the operational missions, and funding the research and analysis programs will consume most of the Astrophysics Division resources.

In October 2021, NASA selected a new Explorer Mission, the gamma-ray telescope COSI (Compton Spectrometer and Imager). COSI will study the recent history of star birth, star death, and the formation of chemical elements in the Milky Way.

In March 2017, NASA selected the Explorer Mission of Opportunity GUSTO (Galactic/Extragalactic ULDB Spectroscopic Terahertz Observatory) to measure emissions from the interstellar medium to help scientists determine the life cycle of interstellar gas in our Milky Way, witness the formation and destruction of star-forming clouds, and understand the dynamics and gas flow in the vicinity of the center of our galaxy.

In February 2016, NASA formally started the top Astro2010 decadal recommendation, the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST). In spring of 2020, WFIRST was renamed the Nancy Grace Roman Space Telescope. Roman will aid researchers in their efforts to unravel the secrets of dark energy and dark matter, and explore the evolution of the cosmos. It will also discover new worlds outside our solar system and advance the search for worlds that could be suitable for life.

The Future

Since the 2001 decadal survey, the way the universe is viewed has changed dramatically. More than 3800 planets have been discovered orbiting distant stars. Black holes are now known to be present at the center of most galaxies, including the Milky Way galaxy. The age, size and shape of the universe have been mapped based on the primordial radiation left by the big bang. And it has been learned that most of the matter in the universe is dark and invisible, and the universe is not only expanding, but accelerating in an unexpected way.

For the long term future, the Astrophysics goals will be guided based on the results of the 2020 Decadal survey Pathways to Discovery in Astronomy and Astrophysics for the 2020s. It identifies the most compelling science goals and presents an ambitious program of ground- and space-based activities for future investment. The report recommends critical near-term actions to support the foundations of the profession as well as the technologies and tools needed to carry out the science.

In 2012 the Astrophysics Implementation Plan was released which describes the activities currently being undertaken in response to the decadal survey recommendations within the current budgetary constraints. The plan was updated in 2014, 2016, and in 2018.

The Astrophysics roadmap Enduring Quests, Daring Visions was developed by a task force of the Astrophysics Subcommittee (APS) in 2013. The Roadmap presents a 30-year vision for astrophysics using the most recent decadal survey as the starting point.