In the Science Mission Directorate (SMD), the Astrophysics division studies the universe. The science goals of the SMD Astrophysics Division are breathtaking: we seek to understand the universe and our place in it. We are starting to investigate the very moment of creation of the universe and are close to learning the full history of stars and galaxies. We are discovering how planetary systems form and how environments hospitable for life develop. And we will search for the signature of life on other worlds, perhaps to learn that we are not alone.
NASA's goal in Astrophysics is to "Discover how the universe works, explore how it began and evolved, and search for life on planets around other stars." Three broad scientific questions emanate from these goals.
- How does the universe work? - Probe the origin and destiny of our universe, including the nature of black holes, dark energy, dark matter and gravity.
- How did we get here? - Explore the origin and evolution of the galaxies, stars and planets that make up our universe.
- Are we alone? - Discover and study planets around other stars, and explore whether they could harbor life.
The National Academies have completed their work on the 2020 Decadal Survey on Astronomy and Astrophysics. Please visit the National Academies Decadal Survey on Astronomy and Astrophysics 2020 web page for additional information about survey and their published documents on the topic.
Astrophysics comprises of three focused and two cross-cutting programs. These focused programs provide an intellectual framework for advancing science and conducting strategic planning. They include:
- Physics of the Cosmos
- Cosmic Origins
- Exoplanet Exploration
- Astrophysics Explorer Program
- Astrophysics Research
The Astrophysics current missions include two of the Great Observatories originally planned in the 1980s and launched over the past 30 years. The current suite of operational missions include the Hubble Space Telescope, the Chandra X-ray Observatory, and the James Webb Space Telescope. Additionally, the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope explores the high-energy end of the spectrum. Innovative Explorer missions, such as the Neil Gehrels Swift Observatory, NuSTAR, TESS, and IXPE, as well as Mission of Opportunity NICER, complement the Astrophysics strategic missions. SOFIA, an airborne observatory for infrared astronomy, is in its extended mission phase. All of the missions together account for much of humanity's accumulated knowledge of the heavens. Many of these missions have achieved their prime science goals, but continue to produce spectacular results in their extended operations.
NASA-funded investigators also participate in observations, data analysis and developed instruments for the astrophysics missions of our international partners, including ESA's XMM-Newton.
The near future will be dominated by several missions. Currently in development, are ESA's Euclid mission which will fly NASA furnished detectors and JAXA's XRISM (X-Ray Imaging and Spectroscopy) mission which uses NASA furnished technologies that will help provide breakthroughs in the study of structure formation of the universe, outflows from galaxy nuclei, and dark matter.
Completing the missions in development, supporting the operational missions, and funding the research and analysis programs will consume most of the Astrophysics Division resources.
In October 2021, NASA selected a new Explorer Mission, the gamma-ray telescope COSI (Compton Spectrometer and Imager). COSI will study the recent history of star birth, star death, and the formation of chemical elements in the Milky Way.
In March 2017, NASA selected the Explorer Mission of Opportunity GUSTO (Galactic/Extragalactic ULDB Spectroscopic Terahertz Observatory) to measure emissions from the interstellar medium to help scientists determine the life cycle of interstellar gas in our Milky Way, witness the formation and destruction of star-forming clouds, and understand the dynamics and gas flow in the vicinity of the center of our galaxy.
In February 2016, NASA formally started the top Astro2010 decadal recommendation, the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST). In spring of 2020, WFIRST was renamed the Nancy Grace Roman Space Telescope. Roman will aid researchers in their efforts to unravel the secrets of dark energy and dark matter, and explore the evolution of the cosmos. It will also discover new worlds outside our solar system and advance the search for worlds that could be suitable for life.
Since the 2001 decadal survey, the way the universe is viewed has changed dramatically. More than 3800 planets have been discovered orbiting distant stars. Black holes are now known to be present at the center of most galaxies, including the Milky Way galaxy. The age, size and shape of the universe have been mapped based on the primordial radiation left by the big bang. And it has been learned that most of the matter in the universe is dark and invisible, and the universe is not only expanding, but accelerating in an unexpected way.
For the long term future, the Astrophysics goals will be guided based on the results of the 2020 Decadal survey Pathways to Discovery in Astronomy and Astrophysics for the 2020s. It identifies the most compelling science goals and presents an ambitious program of ground- and space-based activities for future investment. The report recommends critical near-term actions to support the foundations of the profession as well as the technologies and tools needed to carry out the science.
In 2012 the Astrophysics Implementation Plan was released which describes the activities currently being undertaken in response to the decadal survey recommendations within the current budgetary constraints. The plan was updated in 2014, 2016, and in 2018.
The Astrophysics roadmap Enduring Quests, Daring Visions was developed by a task force of the Astrophysics Subcommittee (APS) in 2013. The Roadmap presents a 30-year vision for astrophysics using the most recent decadal survey as the starting point.