Radio Science Data Type, RS
As mentioned in Chapter 8, RS experiments use the spacecraft radio and the DSN together as a science instrument. RS investigators remotely control equipment in the DSN such as the Radio Science Receivers, RSR, to capture and record data on the attenuation, scintillation, refraction, rotation, Doppler shifts, and other direct modifications of a spacecraft's radio signal as it is affected by the atmosphere of a planet, the Sun, moons, or by structures such as planetary rings or gravitational fields.
Unlike the closed-loop receivers used by TRK and TLM, RS uses open-loop receivers and spectrum processing equipment. Rather than lock onto one discrete frequency, the open-loop equipment can observe a range of frequencies.
The JPL Radio Science System Group has an informative website.