The Moonis a School for Exploration
February 14, 2007: NASA has been exploring space for nearly half a century, often with stupendous success. Yet "there's one thing we really don't know: what is the best way to explore a planet?" declares Paul D. Spudis, a senior planetary scientist at Johns Hopkins University’s Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, Maryland.
Discovering the most effective techniques for exploring a planet is itself cutting-edge research—just as discovering the most effective mining technologies or the best ways of surviving and making machinery work in Antarctica are pioneering research.
On the Moon, astronauts can develop and test techniques for building habitats, harvesting resources and operating machinery in low gravity, high vacuum, harsh radiation, pervasive dust and fantastic extremes of temperature—an environment whose prolonged combination is simply impossible to duplicate on Earth. What they learn will be useful not only on the Moon, but also essential for preparations in going to Mars.
Right: Astronauts and robots work together on a lunar geology study, an artist's concept. [Larger image]
One research project topping the curriculum: What is the best combination of humans and robots? Unmanned orbiting spacecraft and rovers have returned millions of gigabytes of high-quality data from the Moon and planets, revolutionizing our understanding of the solar system. But for geological field work, says Spudis, nothing can replace a trained geologist with a rock hammer, experienced eyes, and the knowledge to "understand rocks in the context of their environment."
For that reason, NASA wants to explore how best to blend humans and machines. One promising technology is telepresence, similar to what's now used in hospital operating rooms for certain types of surgery. From the safety of a radiation-shielded underground lunar habitat, a geologist's movements could be "instantly mirrored by a robot on the surface, complete with instant sensory feedback much as an astronaut has through the gloves of a space suit," Spudis explains. Is that the best way, though? In some circumstances, a robot on its own making lightning-fast decisions with artificial intelligence might do a better job. Again, it's a question best answered by on-site research.
Above: Human-robotic teleprescence, an artist's concept. Credit: Pat Rawlings and NASA. 
Other crucial things humans could learn from lunar experience is how to "make useful things from dirt," Spudis says. On the Moon and Mars, local resources are going to be crucial to astronauts who cannot remain wholly dependent on Earth for supplies. "Aside from solar power, we've never used space resources for any mission," Spudis says, "so we need to understand [how to do it]."
The official NASA acronym for living off the land is ISRU, for In-Situ Resource Utilization. ISRU is basically figuring out how to dig into the surface of another planet, how to get the alien dirt to funnel down a hopper in low gravity (a surprisingly tricky problem), and how to crack and heat the soil to extract valuable liquids and gases—all with high reliability and few mechanical problems.
What's in the lunar regolith that astronauts might need or want to mine? Most immediately useful are oxygen and hydrogen. "From those two elements, we can generate electricity using fuel cells, which make drinkable water as a by-product," Spudis explains. "Hydrogen and oxygen are also rocket propellant. The oxygen astronauts can breathe."
Right: Oxygen underfoot. 40% of the lunar surface, by mass, is oxygen. Footprint and photo credit: Neil Armstrong, Apollo 11. [Larger image]
Not-so-good news: Hydrogen on the Moon is relatively rare. That's one reason NASA is keen to explore the lunar poles where some 10 billion metric tons of frozen water may exist in permanently shaded craters: "ice is a concentrated form of hydrogen," Spudis notes. Experience gained at the Moon's poles may apply to Mars, where ice is also thought to be mixed with deep soil and rock.
"We need to set up shop on the Moon for one clear and understandable reason," he concludes. "The Moon is a school for exploration."
Author: Trudy E. Bell | Editor: Dr. Tony Phillips | Credit: Science@NASA
Metric Moon (Science@NASA) -- NASA is returning to the Moon, and the agency has decided to use metric units for all future lunar operations.
The Moon is a Harsh Witness (Science@NASA) -- Paul Spudis discusses some of the mysteries of Earth that might be solved by returning to the Moon.
In the United States, famous schools of terrestrial ISRU include the Colorado School of Mines in Golden and the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology. See also the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory.
For a longer thoughtful personal perspective by Spudis on the value of the Moon as a school of exploration, see "A moon full of opportunity" in the January 22, 2007 issue of The Space Review.
The possibility of ice at the lunar poles came under fire in October 2006 after some negative data from the Arecibo radio telescope--but in the article "Ice on the Moon" Paul Spudis details some technical factors that limit the nature of those observations as well as other evidence suggesting there is ample cause to investigate further. For the original evidence that first piqued scientists' curiosity, click here and here.
A good primer on ISRU is "Cosmochemistry and Human Exploration" from the University of Hawaii.
More about NASA’s ISRU efforts: "Mining and Manufacturing on the Moon" and "In-Situ Resource Prospecting, Mapping, and Assaying"
See also http://www.isruinfo.com/
NASA's Future: The Vision for Space Exploration