The main objective of Space Biology research is to build a better understanding of how spaceflight affects living systems in spacecraft such as the International Space Station (ISS), or in ground-based experiments that mimic aspects of spaceflight, and to prepare for future human exploration missions far from Earth. The experiments we conduct on these platforms examine how plants, microbes, and animals adjust or adapt to living in space. We examine processes of metabolism, growth, stress response , physiology, and development. We study how organisms repair cellular damage and protect themselves from infection and disease in conditions of microgravity while being exposed to space radiation. And we do it across the spectrum of biological organization, from molecules to cells, from tissues and organs, and from systems to whole organisms to communities of microorganisms.